White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide

Welcome to the taste2travel Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide!

Date Visited: March 2015

Introduction

Trinidad and Tobago (TT) is a two-island country offering the visitor two very different destinations in one and, due to the diversity of its fauna, flora and people, one of the more interesting destinations in the Caribbean.

Trinidad is a peculiar Caribbean destination due to the fact that historically, it formed part of the South American mainland. Because of this the fauna and flora on Trinidad is similar to that of Venezuela and the Amazon and hence unique for a Caribbean island. Here you will find Howler and Capuchin monkeys, ocelots, Scarlet Ibis, Tree boas and so much more. A trip into the mangroves of the Caroni Bird sanctuary feels much more ‘Amazonian’ then ‘Caribbean’.

Both Trinidad and Tobago are two delightful islands and well worth exploring.

Location

Trinidad has more in common with the South American continent than its neighbouring Caribbean islands. At its closest point Trinidad is located just 11-km off the coast of Venezuela and, as recently as 1,500 years ago, was part of the South American mainland.

The two islands are separated by 83 km (52 mi) of azure-blue, Caribbean sea, with Trinidad being more mountainous and forested while Tobago attracts the tourist hordes with its laid-back tempo and its idyllic beaches.

History

Trinidad & Tobago were two separate, independent territories until the British joined them as one administrative region in 1889.

Previously, Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the time Christopher Columbus landed in 1498 until a British invasion in 1797. Columbus named the island after he saw what appeared to him as a trinity of hills along the south-eastern coast.

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

The British occupied Trinidad until independence in 1962. During this period slaves were imported from Africa to work on the many plantations. Once slavery ended indentured labourers from India were brought in to replace the freed slaves. Today the largest population group on Trinidad are the Indo-Trinidadians (37%), followed by the Afro-Trinidadians (36%). Making up the rest of the population are descendants of European settlers, Chinese, Arabs and more.

Trinidad is a veritable melting-pot and this is reflected in the rich and varied cuisine and culture. Carnival is the main cultural event – see ‘Carnival‘ below – and from this Calypso music developed. Today Soca music (mix of Calypso, dance / Indian music) is popular and can be heard throughout the English-speaking Caribbean.

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird in flight at the Asa Wright nature centre.

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird in flight at the Asa Wright nature centre.

Over the centuries Tobago has been occupied by the Dutch, English, Spanish, Swedish and French. The island has changed hands no less than 33 times – more than any other Caribbean island. It was ceded to the British in 1814.

Under British rule the island was run as a plantation, producing sugar, indigo and cotton. Slaves were imported from Africa to work the plantations and today the majority of the population are descendants from those slaves.

The beach at Pigeon Point is one of the finest on the island of Tobago.

The beach at Pigeon Point is one of the finest on the island of Tobago.

Flag

Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.

Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.

The flag of Trinidad and Tobago, which was selected from a series of designs created by the Independence Committee in 1962, features a red field with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly-side.

As per the designer, the colour black represents the dedication of the people joined together by one strong bond. It is the colour of strength, of unity of purpose, and of the wealth of the land.

Red represents the fire element. It is the colour most expressive of Trinidad & Tobago; the vitality of the land and its peoples; the warmth and energy of the sun, the courage and friendliness of the people.

White is the sea by which these lands are bound; the cradle of the nation’s heritage; the purity of aspirations and the equality of all men under the sun.

Currency

Currency of Trinidad and Tobago.

Currency of Trinidad and Tobago.

The official currency of T&T is the Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$), which trades under the international currency code of TTD.

Issued by the Central Bank of Trinidad & Tobago, bank notes are printed in denominations of $1, $5, $10, $20, $50 & $100. Both the $50 and $100 are polymer notes. You can view specimens of current bank notes on the Central Bank website.

The dollar is subdivided into 100 cents (¢), with coins issued in denominations of 5¢, 10¢, 25¢ and 50¢. You can view specimens of current coins on the Central Bank website.

The current exchange rate against the US dollar is US$1 = TT$6.77

To view the current exchange rate, please click here.

Sightseeing

Trinidad

Port of Spain

Sunset over Port-of-Spain.

Sunset over Port of Spain.

Originally the site of an Amerindian fishing village, the capital of TT – Port of Spain (POS) – was founded by Spanish settlers who established a port here: “Puerto de los Hispanioles”, later renamed to “Puerto de España”.  A Spanish garrison first established a presence here in 1560. The British invaded and claimed the country in 1797.

With a population of 600,000 (greater urban area), POS is the 2nd largest city in the English-speaking Caribbean – after Kingston, Jamaica.

POS is an important commercial and financial centre for the Caribbean region and home to its biggest stock exchange. You’ll meet many different Caribbean ex-pats working here. Its airport is an important hub in the Caribbean, its port one of the biggest.

The downtown area is compact and the few sites of interest can be seen on foot in a day. It’s worth starting your day with a walk around Queens Park Savannah. This is the green lung of the city, a huge park lined with historical buildings that are all architecturally different.

On one side of the park you will find the Royal Botanical gardens. These well tended gardens are a good place to see native plants and trees.

Due to the multi-racial population, there are a variety of churches and other places of worship to visit.

Downtown POS has a gritty, rough edge to it. You should exercise caution when walking around. Crime is an issue here. Always take taxis in the evenings.

Carnival

Each year on the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday (February) the city celebrates Carnival. It’s the biggest of its kind in the Caribbean and the most significant event on the islands’ cultural and tourism calendar.

Carnival was originally brought to Trinidad by French settlers from Martinique in the 18th century. Originally the celebration was for the ruling class, but it was imitated and adapted by their slaves and, after the abolition of slavery in 1838, the practice became wide-spread.

The main venue is Queens Park Savannah in downtown POS. Carnival was traditionally associated with calypso music (developed in TT); however, recently Soca music (also developed in TT) has replaced calypso as the music of choice.

Bitter(s) in Trinidad

Angostura Bitters - proudly made in Trinidad.<br /> <i>Source: http://angosturabitters.com/</i>

Angostura Bitters – proudly made in Trinidad.
Source: http://angosturabitters.com/

Famous the world over, Angostura bitters is a concentrated bitters, or botanically infused alcoholic mixture, made by the House of Angostura in POS.

The secret recipe was first formulated by a German doctor who was the Surgeon-General in Simon Bolivar’s army in Venezuela. It was first produced in the town of Angostura (Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela). The company later relocated operations to POS.

Visits are possible but must be organised in advance by contacting the House of Angostura. Don’t even try asking them about their secret recipe.

La Brea Pitch Lake

The surface of the 75-metre deep La Brea Pitch Lake, the largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world.

The surface of the 75-metre deep La Brea Pitch Lake, the largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world.

An interesting anomaly on the south coast of Trinidad is La Brea Pitch lake, which has the distinction of being the largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world, estimated to contain 10 million tons.

The lake is what is known as a bitumen seep. It’s the result of a fault in the sandstone bedrock 75 metres below, which allows bitumen to seep to the surface. The lake covers about 40 hectares (100 acres) and is 75-m (250 feet) deep.

My guide demonstrating how easy it is to sink into the gooey asphalt Lake.

My guide demonstrating how easy it is to sink into the gooey asphalt Lake.

The surface of the lake looks like a car park and is firm enough that you can walk on it. You should only ever do this with a knowledgeable guide as there are many places where the surface is soft and gooey. If you stray into these areas you risk getting stuck and possibly sinking into the gooey depths.

Wandering tourists have died here!

For decades the pitch has been mined and exported for use on roofs and roads.

The very sticky, La Brea Pitch lake.

The very sticky, La Brea Pitch lake.

By car the lake can be reached on a day trip from Port of Spain. The road from POS to San Fernando is a fast dual-lane highway. South of San Fernando the one lane road is slow, windy and busy.

Lake guides will be waiting around in the nearby car park and will find you before you find them!

Caroni Bird Sanctuary

Due to the fact it was sleeping, I was almost able to reach out and touch this Tree Boa in Caroni Bird Sanctuary.

Due to the fact it was sleeping, I was almost able to reach out and touch this Tree Boa in Caroni Bird Sanctuary.

The Caroni Bird Sanctuary is located on the west coast of Trinidad, a short drive south of POS. The sanctuary is centred around the Caroni Swamp, which is an estuarine system of mangrove forest and marshes.

The Caroni Bird Sanctuary is famous for its huge numbers of the striking, but shy, Scarlet Ibis.

The Caroni Bird Sanctuary is famous for its huge numbers of the striking, but shy, Scarlet Ibis.

The sanctuary is home to the Scarlet Ibis – the national bird of Trinidad. The highlight of a visit is to witness thousands of these birds returning to their roosting site at sunset on one central island.

Each evening at sunset, thousands of Scarlet Ibis return to Caroni Bird Sanctuary to roost for the evening.

Each evening at sunset, thousands of Scarlet Ibis return to Caroni Bird Sanctuary to roost for the evening.

The mangrove swamps in the sanctuary are a rich source of food for the Scarlet Ibis.

Like flamingos, the Scarlet Ibis obtains its brilliant colour from pigments in its food, which includes the mangrove crab.

Like flamingos, the Scarlet Ibis obtains its brilliant colour from pigments in its food, which includes the mangrove crab.

You can visit the sanctuary on a tour from POS or you can drive or take a bus. The entrance to the sanctuary is just off the main highway between POS and San Fernando.

If you travel to the sanctuary independently you can join one of the many boats that depart from the sanctuary entrance at around 3:30pm each afternoon.

North Coast and Northern Range

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

If you have a car, a nice day trip from the capital is a circuitous route from Port of Spain to Maracas Bay on the north coast then onto the beautiful, isolated beach at Blanchisseuse. This is the end of the road along the north coast.

From here you turn south and cross the lush Northern Range, stopping at the Asa Wright nature centre before meeting the main highway at the town of Arima then heading back into Port of Spain.

A colourful male Violaceous Euphonia at the Asa Wright Nature Centre.

A colourful male Violaceous Euphonia at the Asa Wright Nature Centre.

Total driving time is about 4-hours but with stops along the way it will take you a full day.

North Coast

A view over the north coast of Trinidad from the Maracas lookout.

A view over the north coast of Trinidad from the Maracas lookout.

The drive from Port of Spain takes you first through the picturesque Maraval valley before eventually bringing you to the north coast. The coast road was built by US troops during WWII and hugs the Northern range high above the sea.

The best panoramic views are from Maracas lookout. On weekends Indian sweet sellers set up food stands here.

The road then descends into Maracas Bay, which is a popular swimming beach. If you want to try Shark and Bake (fried piece of flat-bread – bake – filled with pieces of fried shark) this is the place to do it.

Carib beer is one of the more popular beers in T&T and other Caribbean countries.

Carib beer is one of the more popular beers in T&T and other Caribbean countries.

Continuing until you reach the end of the coast road will bring you to the small village of Blanchisseuse. Here you’ll find a nice beach and a couple of waterfalls, which are popular swimming spots for locals on weekends. There are some beach-side restaurants here offering lunch.

Blanchisseuse Beach on the north coast of Trinidad.

Blanchisseuse Beach on the north coast of Trinidad.

From the coast you now head inland on the narrow, windy, mountainous road over the Northern Range. This is a beautiful drive through lush countryside. The locals advise to take extra caution when driving this road.

Asa Wright Nature Centre

A male White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

A male White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

On the other side of the range, as the road descends through the Arima valley, Asa Wright nature centre is a birdwatchers’ paradise. The original estate was purchased by Dr. Newcome Wright and his Icelandic wife Asa in 1947.

A female White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

A female White-necked Jacobin hummingbird at Asa Wright nature centre.

The original house has been preserved, and houses a dining hall, guest rooms and an open verandah for observing birds. There is a photo of Prince Charles and Camilla visiting the centre displayed in the hallway.

A male Purple Honey Creeper at Asa Wright nature reserve.

A male Purple Honey Creeper at Asa Wright nature reserve.

If you are not a guest you are able to visit the house and use the verandah for observation after paying an admission fee.

A Copper-rumped hummingbird at the Asa Wright nature reserve.

A Copper-rumped hummingbird at the Asa Wright nature reserve.

Tobago

Named for the tobacco plant that the Carib Indians used to harvest,  Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. It is located 32-km northeast of Trinidad, but is a world away from the bustling ‘mainland’.

The island is known for its laid-back tempo, it’s many fine beaches, rain-forest, excellent snorkeling and diving and so is a popular tourist destination. The island relies more on the tourist dollar than Trinidad does.

Tobago has a population of 62,000, its capital and largest city is Scarborough (pop: 25,000).

The island is 40-km long and 10-km wide. There is almost no public transport on the island so you will need a hire car if you wish to explore – see the ‘Getting Around‘ section below for more details.

The roads on the island are asphalt but are narrow, windy and single lane, hugging the coastline most of the time. Driving conditions require that you slow down and take your time. It is a beautiful island with many spectacular views. A complete circuit could be done in one rushed day but two or three is better.

The island is connected to Trinidad by regular fast ferry services and frequent air shuttles – see the ‘Getting There’ section below for more details.

A view over the mountainous north coast of Tobago.

A view over the mountainous north coast of Tobago.

I stayed in the town of Speyside, which is on the quiet, remote north coast. If you wish to snorkel or dive, this is the place to be, but you’ll need your own transport here.

Most tourist infrastructure (hotels, resorts, restaurants, bars etc) is concentrated in the southwest corner of the island around Pigeon Point, Crown Point and Store bay. This area is walking distance from the airport. If you want to be close to sandy beaches, nightlife etc – this is the place to be.

Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide: Sunset from Pigeon Point beach, Tobago.

Sunset from Pigeon Point beach, Tobago.

 Accommodation

There are a range of accommodation options on Trinidad and Tobago. High season prices apply from January to May.

Unlike other Caribbean destinations, hotels in POS rely less on tourists and more on the business traveler. Accommodation is usually more reasonably priced, with bigger chain hotels offering bargains during the weekends. I stayed on the cheap at the Hilton.

Accommodation on Tobago caters for all budgets and is geared to the holiday maker. I stayed in an apartment in Speyside and self-catered. Be prepared for ‘sticker-shock’ when looking at resort / hotel prices.

Best to book in advance using an online agent such as booking.com

Eating Out

Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide: Fish market at Speyside, Tobago.

Fish market at Speyside, Tobago.

Like other Anglo-Caribbean countries, the cuisine of Trinidad and Tobago has been influenced by its diverse multicultural, multiracial population. It is a unique blend of African, Indian, Chinese, European and Latin American influences. Curry and roti can be found everywhere as can Chinese.

The fishing industry is key on Tobago so you will find lots of fresh seafood on the menu there.

Visa Requirements

Some nationalities require visas for Trinidad & Tobago – check your visa requirements prior to arrival.

For some nationalities (e.g. Australians), you can purchase your visa upon arrival.

Getting There

By Air

Trinidad

Flights into Trinidad arrive at Piarco International Airport. The airport is located in the town of Piarco, 30-km east POS.

The airport is the main hub for the national carrier, Caribbean Airlines.

The following airlines provide international connections to / from:

  • American Airlines – Miami
  • British Airways – London (Gatwick)
  • Caribbean Airlines – Antigua, Barbados, Caracas, Fort Lauderdale, Georgetown, Grenada, Kingston, Miami, Nassau, New York (JFK), Orlando, Paramaribo, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, Tobago, Toronto
  • Copa Airlines – Panama City
  • Insel Air – Curaçao
  • JetBlue Airways – Fort Lauderdale, New York (JFK)
  • LIAT – Antigua, Barbados, Georgetown (Ogle), Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent
  • Surinam Airways – Curaçao, Paramaribo
  • United Airlines – Houston (Intercontinental), Newark
  • WestJet – Toronto

Tobago

Flights into Tobago arrive at A.N.R. Robinson International Airport.

The following airlines provide international connections to/ from:

  • British Airways – London (via Antigua)
  • Virgin Atlantic – London (via St. Lucia)
  • Condor – Frankfurt
  • Gol – São Paulo
  • American Airlines and Caribbean Airlines – New York (JFK)

Trinidad ⬅️➡️ Tobago

Caribbean Airlines operates an air bridge between Trinidad and Tobago. There are about 20 daily flights, with the first leaving Trinidad at 6 am.

By Sea

Trinidad ⬅️➡️ Venezuela

Scheduled ferry services between Trinidad (POS) and Venezuela (Guiria) are currently suspended.

For those independent adventurers, there are other options if you are determined to make the short crossing. One detailed account is outlined here.

Trinidad ⬅️➡️ Tobago

The Trinidad & Tobago Inter-Island Ferry Service operates two fast ferries, which complete the 32 km crossing from POS to Scarborough in 2 and a half hours. There are multiple sailings 7-days a week. All details are available on their website.

Getting Around

Trinidad

Public transport on Trinidad is better than Tobago due to its larger population.

You have a choice of buses, maxi taxis (shared mini buses), taxis or ferries (e.g. POS – San Fernando).

Hiring a taxi in POS will cost you around USD$15 flat fare anywhere downtown.

The best option for exploring the island is to hire a car. You should book in advance as demand often outstrips supply. The island can be covered in 4-5 days.

Tobago

Public transport on Tobago is very limited – you will see most locals trying to hitch rides.

The best option for exploring the island is to hire a car. You should book in advance to avoid disappointment. The island can be covered in a day if you rushed around but at a more leisurely pace would require a few days.

 

Further Reading

Other travel reports from the Caribbean region include:

 

Safe Travels!

Darren

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Author: Darren McLean

Owner of taste2travel.com – an avid traveller, photographer, travel writer and adventurer.

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Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide
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Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide
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A Trinidad & Tobago Travel Guide by Darren McLean - covering history, sights, accommodation, restaurants, visa requirements, getting there & around.
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